What to do
Oleysays that all lifting operations involving lifting equipment must be properly planned by a competent person; duly supervised; and done safely.
Cranes and lifting accessories such as slings must be of adequate strength, tested, and subject to required examinations and inspections.
All crane operators and persons involved in lifting loads and directing lifting operations must be trained and competent.
What do you need to know
Lifting operations include the use of:
- gin wheels
There are four main aspects to the safe use of cranes:
- Planning of lifting operations
- safe work systems
- elevation supervision
- through the exam
Tower and mobile cranes are widely used on construction projects and present two main hazards:
- crane collapse– such incidents have significant potential for multiple fatal injuries, both on and off site;
- load drop– these events also have significant potential for death and serious injury.
Other incidents involved people struck by moving loads, cranes contacting overhead conductors, and cranes colliding with each other.
Important note for crane users:Legal responsibilities for safe lifting operations are generally shared between the crane lessee and the crane user.
When a crane is hired, the responsibility for planning, supervising and executing the lifting operations rests with the user, unless these responsibilities are explicitly assumed by the crane rental company in a 'lift contract'.
People who rent cranes but do not have the necessary skills for safe planning and use should opt for a 'lift contract' from the crane rental company.
Planning of lifting operations
All lifting operations must be planned to be carried out safely, taking into account foreseeable risks.
The person assigned to plan the lifting operation must have adequate theoretical and practical knowledge and experience in the lifts being performed.
The plan shall address the risks identified by a risk assessment, the necessary resources, procedures, and responsibilities for any lifting operation to be carried out safely.
The plan must ensure that the lifting equipment remains safe for the range of lifting operations for which the equipment may be used.
British Standard BS 7121 Part 1 2006 sets an acceptable standard for the management of crane lifting operations on construction projects.
safe work systems
You must plan your lifting operations carefully to ensure that they are carried out safely. Your plan must result in a safe work system and this information must be recorded. This record is sometimes known asmethod declarationand you need to make sure everyone involved understands it.
Key elements include:
- planning, including site preparation, assembly and disassembly of cranes;
- selection, provision and use of a suitable crane and work equipment
- including secure connection and signaling arrangements;
- maintenance and examination of the crane and equipment;
- provision of properly trained and competent personnel;
- supervision of operations by personnel with the necessary authority;
- completed exams, reports and other documents;
- prevent unauthorized movement or use of the crane; Is
- Measures to ensure the safety of people outside the elevator.
There must be the correct level of supervision for lifting operations, reflecting the degree of risk and the personnel involved in the specific lifting operation.
The crane supervisor must direct and supervise the lifting operation to ensure that it is carried out in accordance with the method statement.
The crane supervisor must be competent and properly trained and have sufficient experience to perform all relevant functions and the authority to stop the lifting operation if it is deemed unsafe to continue.
through the exam
There are strict legal requirements regarding the scrutiny of all cranes:
Lifting equipment should be thoroughly inspected at prescribed intervals. This is a detailed and specialized examination carried out by a competent person.
The examination is usually arranged by the crane rental company, although it is the responsibility of the crane user to ensure that all necessary examinations are carried out and that the required reports are in order.
Complete records of examinations and tests must be: readily available to the responsible authorities; sure; and capable of reproduction in writing.
Gim wheels provide a convenient way to manually lift tools and light loads. Despite being a simple piece of equipment, care must be taken when installing and using it to avoid accidents. If you use a sprocket or similar, make sure it has:
- They were securely attached to secure anchor points to prevent displacement;
- a suitable hook designed to prevent shifting of the load or a hook fitted with a safety latch. The safety latch will help retain the load if it gets stuck. Do not use bent rebar or other makeshift hooks;
- a safe working platform from which the hook can be loaded and unloaded; Is
- they have been clearly marked with the safe workload.
Hoists of various types are widely used on construction sites and include freight and passenger hoists, inclined hoists, and transport platforms. They have become an essential part of almost every construction project, providing the facility for quick and smooth movement of workers and materials.
Elevators must be:
- duly built with solid, stable materials and capable of lifting the necessary loads;
- properly marked as to their use, either for equipment and materials only, or for passengers in addition to cargo, and the number that can be carried, together with a notice of safe working load. Never allow passengers to ride a freight-only hoist;
- erected only by trained and experienced persons following the manufacturer's instructions and properly secured to the supporting structure;
- operated only by trained and competent persons;
- carefully examined and tested after assembly, substantial alteration or repair and at appropriate intervals. Periodic safety checks should be carried out and the results recorded. As a general guideline, the operator should perform daily pre-use checks, with additional formal inspections at least once a month or in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions when times are shorter.
Set the controls:
- so that the forklifts can only be operated from one position, e.g. ground level and the operator can see all landing levels from the operating position; Is
- so that passenger elevators with platform controls can only be operated from the platform, except in emergencies.
To prevent the platform or other moving parts from hitting people:
- place the elevator shaft in places where people can be hit, e.g. ground level, work platforms, or window openings; Is
- provide doors at all landings and at ground level.
Prevent people from falling down the elevator shaft by making sure that:
- the elevator shaft is fenced off where people can fall;
- landing doors are kept closed except during loading and unloading. Doors must be secure and not free to enter the elevator shaft; Is
- the free distance from the edge of the platform to the landing is adequate, and the platform is equipped with a ramp so that there is no space to fall.
Prevent people from being hit by falling materials, e.g. by:
- close the elevator shaft;
- ensure skids have toe boards and are enclosed with screens or solid sides where loads exceed toe board height;
- transport of loose materials in containers such as wheelbarrows or stillage;
- make sure all containers are secured to prevent inadvertent movement; Is
- making sure loads are evenly distributed on the deck and not imposing any load points other than the manufacturer's instructions.